Monday, January 25, 2010

Install HTK on SLES10sp2

1. Add to the install source if no DVD is in the computer;

2. Install package: glibc-devel-32bit

zypper se glibc # search for the package in software source
zypper in glibc-devel-32bit

3. ./configure --disable-hslab

4. make all

5. make install

Thursday, January 21, 2010

Artificial Intelligence Is More Than Just Talk--Google's Top Inventor

Artificial Intelligence Is More Than Just Talk--Google's Top Inventor
Silicon Republic (01/14/10) Kennedy, John

Peter Norvig, head of research for Google, says that humans will soon be talking to computers. Norvig notes that humans and computers are already communicating, but not using the same language. He explains that humans use keywords rather than whole sentences to communicate with a search engine, which is unable to understand a person as well as another human. "But on the other hand, [the search engine] is giving us answers that a person wouldn't, so it has its strengths and weaknesses," Norvig says. He also expects the proliferation of mobile phones to lead to a different type of interaction with the Internet. Speech recognition will allow mobile phone users to talk more and displays will shrink. "The advantages with mobile are that if you're in a specific location and you ask a specific query then--because of [global positioning systems]--there's going to be an answer that's appropriate to the location," Norvig says.


Wednesday, January 20, 2010

x86_64 Linux Error: gnu/stub-32.h missing error and solution

x86_64 Linux Error: gnu/stub-32.h missing error and solution
x86_64 Linux Error: gnu/stub-32.h missing error and solution

by Vivek Gite · 2 comments

Q. I'm getting the following error while compiling application under CentOS / RHEL / Fedora Linux 64 bit edition:

/usr/include/gnu/stubs.h:7:27: error: gnu/stubs-32.h:

No such file or directory

How do I fix this error?

A. You need to install the glibc-devel package. It contains the object files necessary for developing programs which use the standard C libraries (which are used by nearly all programs). If you are developing programs which will use the standard C libraries, your system needs to have these standard object files available in order to create the executables.

Install glibc-devel if you are going to develop programs which will use the standard C libraries.
# yum -y install glibc-devel
Now again try to recompile application.

20 Linux System Monitoring Tools Every SysAdmin Should K

20 Linux System Monitoring Tools Every SysAdmin Should Know
20 Linux System Monitoring Tools Every SysAdmin Should Know

by Vivek Gite · 97 comments

Need to monitor Linux server performance? Try these built-in command and a few add-on tools. Most Linux distributions are equipped with tons of monitoring. These tools provide metrics which can be used to get information about system activities. You can use these tools to find the possible causes of a performance problem. The commands discussed below are some of the most basic commands when it comes to system analysis and debugging server issues such as:

1. Finding out bottlenecks.
2. Disk (storage) bottlenecks.
3. CPU and memory bottlenecks.
4. Network bottlenecks.

#1: top - Process Activity Command

The top program provides a dynamic real-time view of a running system i.e. actual process activity. By default, it displays the most CPU-intensive tasks running on the server and updates the list every five seconds.
Fig.01: Linux top command

Fig.01: Linux top command
Commonly Used Hot Keys

The top command provides several useful hot keys:
Hot Key Usage
t Displays summary information off and on.
m Displays memory information off and on.
A Sorts the display by top consumers of various system resources. Useful for quick identification of performance-hungry tasks on a system.
f Enters an interactive configuration screen for top. Helpful for setting up top for a specific task.
o Enables you to interactively select the ordering within top.
r Issues renice command.
k Issues kill command.
z Turn on or off color/mono

=> Related: How do I Find Out Linux CPU Utilization?

#2: vmstat - System Activity, Hardware and System Information

The command vmstat reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity.
# vmstat 3
Sample Outputs:

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------
r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st
0 0 0 2540988 522188 5130400 0 0 2 32 4 2 4 1 96 0 0
1 0 0 2540988 522188 5130400 0 0 0 720 1199 665 1 0 99 0 0
0 0 0 2540956 522188 5130400 0 0 0 0 1151 1569 4 1 95 0 0
0 0 0 2540956 522188 5130500 0 0 0 6 1117 439 1 0 99 0 0
0 0 0 2540940 522188 5130512 0 0 0 536 1189 932 1 0 98 0 0
0 0 0 2538444 522188 5130588 0 0 0 0 1187 1417 4 1 96 0 0
0 0 0 2490060 522188 5130640 0 0 0 18 1253 1123 5 1 94 0 0

Display Memory Utilization Slabinfo

# vmstat -m
Get Information About Active / Inactive Memory Pages

# vmstat -a
=> Related: How do I find out Linux Resource utilization to detect system bottlenecks?

#3: w - Find Out Who Is Logged on And What They Are Doing

w command displays information about the users currently on the machine, and their processes.
# w username
# w vivek
Sample Outputs:

17:58:47 up 5 days, 20:28, 2 users, load average: 0.36, 0.26, 0.24
root pts/0 14:55 5.00s 0.04s 0.02s vim /etc/resolv.conf
root pts/1 17:43 0.00s 0.03s 0.00s w

#4: uptime - Tell How Long The System Has Been Running

The uptime command can be used to see how long the server has been running. The current time, how long the system has been running, how many users are currently logged on, and the system load averages for the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes.
# uptime

18:02:41 up 41 days, 23:42, 1 user, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00

1 can be considered as optimal load value. The load can change from system to system. For a single CPU system 1 - 3 and SMP systems 6-10 load value might be acceptable.

#5: ps - Displays The Processes

ps command will report a snapshot of the current processes. To select all processes use the -A or -e option:
# ps -A
Sample Outputs:

1 ? 00:00:02 init
2 ? 00:00:02 migration/0
3 ? 00:00:01 ksoftirqd/0
4 ? 00:00:00 watchdog/0
5 ? 00:00:00 migration/1
6 ? 00:00:15 ksoftirqd/1
4881 ? 00:53:28 java
4885 tty1 00:00:00 mingetty
4886 tty2 00:00:00 mingetty
4887 tty3 00:00:00 mingetty
4888 tty4 00:00:00 mingetty
4891 tty5 00:00:00 mingetty
4892 tty6 00:00:00 mingetty
4893 ttyS1 00:00:00 agetty
12853 ? 00:00:00 cifsoplockd
12854 ? 00:00:00 cifsdnotifyd
14231 ? 00:10:34 lighttpd
14232 ? 00:00:00 php-cgi
54981 pts/0 00:00:00 vim
55465 ? 00:00:00 php-cgi
55546 ? 00:00:00 bind9-snmp-stat
55704 pts/1 00:00:00 ps

ps is just like top but provides more information.
Show Long Format Output

# ps -Al
To turn on extra full mode (it will show command line arguments passed to process):
# ps -AlF
To See Threads ( LWP and NLWP)

# ps -AlFH
To See Threads After Processes

# ps -AlLm
Print All Process On The Server

# ps ax
# ps axu
Print A Process Tree

# ps -ejH
# ps axjf
# pstree
Print Security Information

# ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
# ps axZ
# ps -eM
See Every Process Running As User Vivek

# ps -U vivek -u vivek u
Set Output In a User-Defined Format

# ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
# ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
# ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan
Display Only The Process IDs of Lighttpd

# ps -C lighttpd -o pid=
# pgrep lighttpd
# pgrep -u vivek php-cgi
Display The Name of PID 55977

# ps -p 55977 -o comm=
Find Out The Top 10 Memory Consuming Process

# ps -auxf | sort -nr -k 4 | head -10
Find Out top 10 CPU Consuming Process

# ps -auxf | sort -nr -k 3 | head -10

#6: free - Memory Usage

The command free displays the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory in the system, as well as the buffers used by the kernel.
# free
Sample Output:

total used free shared buffers cached
Mem: 12302896 9739664 2563232 0 523124 5154740
-/+ buffers/cache: 4061800 8241096
Swap: 1052248 0 1052248

=> Related: :

1. Linux Find Out Virtual Memory PAGESIZE
2. Linux Limit CPU Usage Per Process
3. How much RAM does my Ubuntu / Fedora Linux desktop PC have?

#7: iostat - Average CPU Load, Disk Activity

The command iostat report Central Processing Unit (CPU) statistics and input/output statistics for devices, partitions and network filesystems (NFS).
# iostat
Sample Outputs:

Linux 2.6.18-128.1.14.el5 ( 06/26/2009

avg-cpu: %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle
3.50 0.09 0.51 0.03 0.00 95.86

Device: tps Blk_read/s Blk_wrtn/s Blk_read Blk_wrtn
sda 22.04 31.88 512.03 16193351 260102868
sda1 0.00 0.00 0.00 2166 180
sda2 22.04 31.87 512.03 16189010 260102688
sda3 0.00 0.00 0.00 1615 0

=> Related: : Linux Track NFS Directory / Disk I/O Stats

#8: sar - Collect and Report System Activity

The sar command is used to collect, report, and save system activity information. To see network counter, enter:
# sar -n DEV | more
To display the network counters from the 24th:
# sar -n DEV -f /var/log/sa/sa24 | more
You can also display real time usage using sar:
# sar 4 5
Sample Outputs:

Linux 2.6.18-128.1.14.el5 ( 06/26/2009

06:45:12 PM CPU %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle
06:45:16 PM all 2.00 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00 97.78
06:45:20 PM all 2.07 0.00 0.38 0.03 0.00 97.52
06:45:24 PM all 0.94 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00 98.78
06:45:28 PM all 1.56 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00 98.22
06:45:32 PM all 3.53 0.00 0.25 0.03 0.00 96.19
Average: all 2.02 0.00 0.27 0.01 0.00 97.70

=> Related: : How to collect Linux system utilization data into a file

#9: mpstat - Multiprocessor Usage

The mpstat command displays activities for each available processor, processor 0 being the first one. mpstat -P ALL to display average CPU utilization per processor:
# mpstat -P ALL
Sample Output:

Linux 2.6.18-128.1.14.el5 ( 06/26/2009

06:48:11 PM CPU %user %nice %sys %iowait %irq %soft %steal %idle intr/s
06:48:11 PM all 3.50 0.09 0.34 0.03 0.01 0.17 0.00 95.86 1218.04
06:48:11 PM 0 3.44 0.08 0.31 0.02 0.00 0.12 0.00 96.04 1000.31
06:48:11 PM 1 3.10 0.08 0.32 0.09 0.02 0.11 0.00 96.28 34.93
06:48:11 PM 2 4.16 0.11 0.36 0.02 0.00 0.11 0.00 95.25 0.00
06:48:11 PM 3 3.77 0.11 0.38 0.03 0.01 0.24 0.00 95.46 44.80
06:48:11 PM 4 2.96 0.07 0.29 0.04 0.02 0.10 0.00 96.52 25.91
06:48:11 PM 5 3.26 0.08 0.28 0.03 0.01 0.10 0.00 96.23 14.98
06:48:11 PM 6 4.00 0.10 0.34 0.01 0.00 0.13 0.00 95.42 3.75
06:48:11 PM 7 3.30 0.11 0.39 0.03 0.01 0.46 0.00 95.69 76.89

=> Related: : Linux display each multiple SMP CPU processors utilization individually.

#10: pmap - Process Memory Usage

The command pmap report memory map of a process. Use this command to find out causes of memory bottlenecks.
# pmap -d PID
To display process memory information for pid # 47394, enter:
# pmap -d 47394
Sample Outputs:

47394: /usr/bin/php-cgi
Address Kbytes Mode Offset Device Mapping
0000000000400000 2584 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002 php-cgi
0000000000886000 140 rw--- 0000000000286000 008:00002 php-cgi
00000000008a9000 52 rw--- 00000000008a9000 000:00000 [ anon ]
0000000000aa8000 76 rw--- 00000000002a8000 008:00002 php-cgi
000000000f678000 1980 rw--- 000000000f678000 000:00000 [ anon ]
000000314a600000 112 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002
000000314a81b000 4 r---- 000000000001b000 008:00002
000000314a81c000 4 rw--- 000000000001c000 008:00002
000000314aa00000 1328 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002
000000314ab4c000 2048 ----- 000000000014c000 008:00002
00002af8d48fd000 4 rw--- 0000000000006000 008:00002
00002af8d490c000 40 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002
00002af8d4916000 2044 ----- 000000000000a000 008:00002
00002af8d4b15000 4 r---- 0000000000009000 008:00002
00002af8d4b16000 4 rw--- 000000000000a000 008:00002
00002af8d4b17000 768000 rw-s- 0000000000000000 000:00009 zero (deleted)
00007fffc95fe000 84 rw--- 00007ffffffea000 000:00000 [ stack ]
ffffffffff600000 8192 ----- 0000000000000000 000:00000 [ anon ]
mapped: 933712K writeable/private: 4304K shared: 768000K

The last line is very important:

* mapped: 933712K total amount of memory mapped to files
* writeable/private: 4304K the amount of private address space
* shared: 768000K the amount of address space this process is sharing with others

=> Related: : Linux find the memory used by a program / process using pmap command

#11 and #12: netstat and ss - Network Statistics

The command netstat displays network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships. ss command is used to dump socket statistics. It allows showing information similar to netstat. See the following resources about ss and netstat commands:

* ss: Display Linux TCP / UDP Network and Socket Information
* Get Detailed Information About Particular IP address Connections Using netstat Command

#13: iptraf - Real-time Network Statistics

The iptraf command is interactive colorful IP LAN monitor. It is an ncurses-based IP LAN monitor that generates various network statistics including TCP info, UDP counts, ICMP and OSPF information, Ethernet load info, node stats, IP checksum errors, and others. It can provide the following info in easy to read format:

* Network traffic statistics by TCP connection
* IP traffic statistics by network interface
* Network traffic statistics by protocol
* Network traffic statistics by TCP/UDP port and by packet size
* Network traffic statistics by Layer2 address

Fig.02: General interface statistics: IP traffic statistics by network interface

Fig.02: General interface statistics: IP traffic statistics by network interface
Fig.03 Network traffic statistics by TCP connection

Fig.03 Network traffic statistics by TCP connection

#14: tcpdump - Detailed Network Traffic Analysis

The tcpdump is simple command that dump traffic on a network. However, you need good understanding of TCP/IP protocol to utilize this tool. For.e.g to display traffic info about DNS, enter:
# tcpdump -i eth1 'udp port 53'
To display all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain data, not, for example, SYN and FIN packets and ACK-only packets, enter:
# tcpdump 'tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2)) - ((tcp[12]&0xf0)>>2)) != 0)'
To display all FTP session to, enter:
# tcpdump -i eth1 'dst and (port 21 or 20'
To display all HTTP session to
# tcpdump -ni eth0 'dst and tcp and port http'
Use wireshark to view detailed information about files, enter:
# tcpdump -n -i eth1 -s 0 -w output.txt src or dst port 80

#15: strace - System Calls

Trace system calls and signals. This is useful for debugging webserver and other server problems. See how to use to trace the process and see What it is doing.

#16: /Proc file system - Various Kernel Statistics

/proc file system provides detailed information about various hardware devices and other Linux kernel information. See Linux kernel /proc documentations for further details. Common /proc examples:
# cat /proc/cpuinfo
# cat /proc/meminfo
# cat /proc/zoneinfo
# cat /proc/mounts

17#: Nagios - Server And Network Monitoring

Nagios is a popular open source computer system and network monitoring application software. You can easily monitor all your hosts, network equipment and services. It can send alert when things go wrong and again when they get better. FAN is "Fully Automated Nagios". FAN goals are to provide a Nagios installation including most tools provided by the Nagios Community. FAN provides a CDRom image in the standard ISO format, making it easy to easilly install a Nagios server. Added to this, a wide bunch of tools are including to the distribution, in order to improve the user experience around Nagios.

18#: Cacti - Web-based Monitoring Tool

Cacti is a complete network graphing solution designed to harness the power of RRDTool's data storage and graphing functionality. Cacti provides a fast poller, advanced graph templating, multiple data acquisition methods, and user management features out of the box. All of this is wrapped in an intuitive, easy to use interface that makes sense for LAN-sized installations up to complex networks with hundreds of devices. It can provide data about network, CPU, memory, logged in users, Apache, DNS servers and much more. See how to install and configure Cacti network graphing tool under CentOS / RHEL.

#19: KDE System Guard - Real-time Systems Reporting and Graphing

KSysguard is a network enabled task and system monitor application for KDE desktop. This tool can be run over ssh session. It provides lots of features such as a client/server architecture that enables monitoring of local and remote hosts. The graphical front end uses so-called sensors to retrieve the information it displays. A sensor can return simple values or more complex information like tables. For each type of information, one or more displays are provided. Displays are organized in worksheets that can be saved and loaded independently from each other. So, KSysguard is not only a simple task manager but also a very powerful tool to control large server farms.
Fig.05 KDE System Guard

Fig.05 KDE System Guard {Image credit: Wikipedia}

See the KSysguard handbook for detailed usage.

#20: Gnome System Monitor - Real-time Systems Reporting and Graphing

The System Monitor application enables you to display basic system information and monitor system processes, usage of system resources, and file systems. You can also use System Monitor to modify the behavior of your system. Although not as powerful as the KDE System Guard, it provides the basic information which may be useful for new users:

* Displays various basic information about the computer's hardware and software.
* Linux Kernel version
* GNOME version
* Hardware
* Installed memory
* Processors and speeds
* System Status
* Currently available disk space
* Processes
* Memory and swap space
* Network usage
* File Systems
* Lists all mounted filesystems along with basic information about each.

Fig.06 The Gnome System Monitor application

Fig.06 The Gnome System Monitor application
Bounce: Additional Tools

A few more tools:

* nmap - scan your server for open ports.
* lsof - list open files, network connections and much more.
* ntop web based tool - ntop is the best tool to see network usage in a way similar to what top command does for processes i.e. it is network traffic monitoring software. You can see network status, protocol wise distribution of traffic for UDP, TCP, DNS, HTTP and other protocols.
* Conky - Another good monitoring tool for the X Window System. It is highly configurable and is able to monitor many system variables including the status of the CPU, memory, swap space, disk storage, temperatures, processes, network interfaces, battery power, system messages, e-mail inboxes etc.
* GKrellM - It can be used to monitor the status of CPUs, main memory, hard disks, network interfaces, local and remote mailboxes, and many other things.
* vnstat - vnStat is a console-based network traffic monitor. It keeps a log of hourly, daily and monthly network traffic for the selected interface(s).
* htop - htop is an enhanced version of top, the interactive process viewer, which can display the list of processes in a tree form.
* mtr - mtr combines the functionality of the traceroute and ping programs in a single network diagnostic tool.

Did I miss something? Please add your favorite system motoring tool in the comments.

LinuxHQ: How to apply patches

LinuxHQ: How to apply patches
How to Apply Kernel Patches
With each new kernel release, there is a corresponding 'patch' The simplest way to patch your kernel is to follow the directions in the Kernel HOWTO - Patching your kernel.
How to Apply the Unofficial Kernel Patches
Patches are easy to apply, once you understand a few simple concepts:

* Patches are usually for a specific version of the kernel. This means old patches may not work with newer kernels.
* Patches are generally built from 'clean' unpatched kernel sources. So, one patch may make a change that causes other patches to fail.
* Patches are not part of the released kernel tree, thus do not be suprised it they don't work. Always keep a backup of your original kernel source!

Now, on to applying the patches. Normally all you need to do is simply issue the following command:

patch -p0 < patch-file-name-here

This should be done from the /usr/src directory.

Sometimes, the patch authors do not include the full path to the files that are being patched, in this case you will need to change to the directory that contains the file. Simply look at the patch file, in the first few lines you should see something like this:

--- drivres/block/rd.c.orig Tue Jul 2 17:08:41 1996
+++ drivres/block/rd.c Mon Sep 30 19:24:06 1996

This tells you that the file being patched is drivers/block/rd.c and the relative path from the /usr/src/ directory is included. But if you see something like this:

--- isdn_common.c~ Fri Nov 22 21:33:10 1996
+++ isdn_common.c Mon Mar 31 01:46:57 1997

This tells you that you will need to find the file isdn_common.c and change to the directory containing this file before you apply the patch.


ls command

ls -l

the alias for this command is "ll"

list the files in a long list format. also ignoring the hidden files begin with "."

Monday, January 18, 2010


Using Grid Engine

You should now enter the command:

   source /gridware/sge/default/common/settings.csh

if you are a csh/tcsh user or

   # . /gridware/sge/default/common/

if you are a sh/ksh user.

This will set or expand the following environment variables:

   - $SGE_ROOT         (always necessary)
   - $SGE_CELL         (if you are using a cell other than >default<)
   - $SGE_CLUSTER_NAME (always necessary)
   - $SGE_QMASTER_PORT (if you haven't added the service >sge_qmaster<)
   - $SGE_EXECD_PORT   (if you haven't added the service >sge_execd<)
   - $PATH/$path       (to find the Grid Engine binaries)
   - $MANPATH          (to access the manual pages)

Grid Engine messages

Grid Engine messages can be found at:

   /tmp/qmaster_messages (during qmaster startup)
   /tmp/execd_messages   (during execution daemon startup)

After startup the daemons log their messages in their spool directories.

   Qmaster:     /gridware/sge/default/spool/qmaster/messages
   Exec daemon: <execd_spool_dir>/<hostname>/messages

Grid Engine startup scripts

Grid Engine startup scripts can be found at:

   /gridware/sge/default/common/sgemaster (qmaster)
   /gridware/sge/default/common/sgeexecd (execd)